For publications earlier than 2019, view our publications archive.
| Burivalova, Zuzana; Purnomo,; Wahyudi, Bambang; Boucher, Timothy M.; Ellis, Peter; Truskinger, Anthony; Towsey, Michael; Roe, Paul; Marthinus, Delon; Griscom, Bronson; Game, Edward T.: Using soundscapes to investigate homogenization of tropical forest diversity in selectively logged forests. In: Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2493-2504, 2019. (Type: Journal Article | | )|
Abstract Selective logging in tropical forests changes the local number of animal species (alpha diversity), but it also likely affects species turnover (beta diversity). Whilst such changes are documented in many ecosystems under different disturbances, they are poorly understood in selectively logged tropical forests. By using soundscape recordings across broad spatial scales, we measured soundscape saturation and dissimilarity of pairs of soundscapes, as a proxy of alpha and beta diversity, respectively, in selectively logged and protected tropical forest in Indonesian Borneo. Soundscapes of selectively logged forests were more homogeneous than the soundscapes of never logged forest, and that soundscape saturation of protected forest was higher during the day and lower at night in comparison with selective logging concessions. Synthesis and applications. Selectively logged forests act as an important reservoir of biodiversity. Optimizing such production forests for biodiversity conservation requires the consideration of the total continuous area that is assigned to selective logging, and spatial arrangement of annual cutting blocks, as these could affect beta diversity and its recovery.
| Runting, Rebecca K.; Ruslandi,; Griscom, Bronson W.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Satar, Musnanda; Meijaard, Erik; Burivalova, Zuzana; Cheyne, Susan M.; Deere, Nicolas J.; Game, Edward T.; Putz, F. E.; Wells, Jessie A.; Wilting, Andreas; Ancrenaz, Marc; Ellis, Peter; Khan, Faisal A. A.; Leavitt, Sara M.; Marshall, Andrew J.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Watson, James E. M.; Venter, Oscar: Larger gains from improved management over sparing--sharing for tropical forests. In: Nature Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 53-61, 2019, ISSN: 2398-9629. (Type: Journal Article | | )|
Tropical forests are globally important for both biodiversity conservation and the production of economically valuable wood products. To deliver both simultaneously, two contrasting approaches have been suggested: one partitions forests (sparing); the other integrates both objectives in the same location (sharing). To date, the `sparing or sharing' debate has focused on agricultural landscapes, with scant attention paid to forest management. We explore the delivery of biodiversity and wood products in a continuum of sparing-to-sharing scenarios, using spatial optimization with set economic returns in East Kalimantan, Indonesia---a biodiversity hotspot. We found that neither sparing nor sharing extremes are optimal, although the greatest conservation value was attained towards the sparing end of the continuum. Critically, improved management strategies, such as reduced-impact logging, provided larger conservation gains than altering the balance between sparing and sharing, particularly for endangered species. Ultimately, debating sparing versus sharing has limited value while larger gains remain from improving forest management.
| Griscom, Bronson W.; Ellis, Peter W.; Burivalova, Zuzana; Halperin, James; Marthinus, Delon; Runting, Rebecca K.; Ruslandi,; Shoch, David; Putz, Francis E.: Reduced-impact logging in Borneo to minimize carbon emissions and impacts on sensitive habitats while maintaining timber yields. In: Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 438, pp. 176-185, 2019, ISSN: 0378-1127. (Type: Journal Article | | )|
We define two implementation levels for reduced-impact logging for climate mitigation (RIL-C) practices for felling, skidding, and hauling in dipterocarp forest concessions of East and North Kalimantan. Each implementation level reduces logging emissions by a consistent proportion below the business-as-usual emissions baseline, which varies with harvest intensity. Level 1 reflects the best recorded emissions performance for each type of practice. Level 2 is more ambitious but feasible based on workshop feedback from concession managers and forestry experts, and confirmed by a recent demonstration. At Level 1 emissions can be reduced by 33%, avoiding emissions of 64.9 ± 22.2 MgCO2 per ha harvested, on average. At Level 2 emissions can be reduced by 46%, avoiding 88.6 ± 22.7 MgCO2 ha−1. The greatest emissions reductions derive from (i) not felling trees that will be left in the forest due to commercial defects, and (ii) use of long-line cable winching to avoid bulldozer impacts. We also quantify the potential to avoid logging steep slopes and riparian habitats, while holding to our RIL-C accounting assumption that timber yields are maintained to avoid problems of leakage and product substitution. Logging damage to riparian areas <50 m from perennial streams could be avoided by re-locating harvests to less sensitive areas that currently are not accessed due to lack of spatial planning. In all but the steepest concessions, all slopes >40% could similarly be avoided. The combined areas of these sensitive habitats (steep slopes and riparian buffers) represented 16% of each cutting block on average. Implementation of RIL-C practices would deliver 8% (Level 1) and 11% (Level 2) of Indonesia’s pledged reductions to their forest reference emissions level as a nationally determined contribution to the Paris Climate Agreement. In concert with RIL-C practices, 30% of logging concession areas could be permanently protected from logging and conversion to minimize impacts on biodiversity, soils, and water quality, thereby expanding Indonesia’s protected areas by one third and achieving 93% of Indonesia’s Aichi Target 11 (the effective conservation of at least 17% of lands). Both these Paris Climate Agreement and Aichi outcomes could be delivered with no reductions in timber yields and substantial improvements in worker safety and sustainability of the natural forest timber sector.